The purpose of this study was to focus on improving instrumental tuition retention by considering what influences children’s musical instrument choices through an action research project which involved surveying, interviewing and providing sound clips for groups of children in Year 2 and Year 6. The project was undertaken in a Primary School in X, United Kingdom. I researched children’s preferred choice of musical instrument and the reason(s) for this choice. The main group of children involved in the study had yet to begin instrumental tuition which was provided free by the local council. Contrasts were made with another group of children who had been given an opportunity to choose from three instruments for free tuition. The findings explore the effects which influence instrument choice and how this information could improve the number of students continuing with instrumental tuition at a post-primary level.